Agnes Moorehead Reports Again

agnes_moorehead_bewitched_1969For the “Suspense” March 23, 1953, production of Charles Dickens’ “The Signal-Man,” one of radio’s leading ladies, Agnes Moorehead, narrates a supernatural story, some 16 years before she played the witch Endora on TV’s “Bewitched.”

Her character is a returned resident of an English village, back after 20 years, encountering the veteran railroad signal-man at his tunnel-entrance shack. But it’s not just a nostalgic visit, she is also a journalist: “I’m a writer,” she says. “I wanted to interview you…”

I last heard Moorehead play a reporter when I discovered her starring in Cavalcade of America’s 1945 dramatized life of Nellie Bly. (

This was not the first radio production of “The Signal-Man,” and both it and the “Lights Out” version I reported on last depart from Dickens’ tale by explicitly making the narrator a journalist. Since Dickens’ original (now available online) was first published in a magazine, perhaps the narrator’s role as writer went without saying, although the words “reporter,” “journalist” and “writer” never appear in the story. In this version the woman works for a magazine. The troubled railroad-tunnel signal operator of the title confesses to being a reader who is familiar with her unnamed magazine column. In the “Lights Out” version of the story, the narrator is from The London Times. 

In Dickens’ story, the narrator merely describes himself as “… a man who had been shut up within narrow limits all his life, and who, being at last set free, had a newly-awakened interest in these great works.” (The “great works” presumably being the railroad and its tunnel, similar to one involved in the 1861 Clayton Tunnel rail crash, five years before Dickens published his tale.)

The signal-man’s shack holds a shelf of classic books — including Gibbon and Darwin — part of what makes him interest the reporter as an unusual feature. He appears more educated and sophisticated than his job requires… and his education implies that he should not be troubled by ghostly apparitions.

As an interviewee, he asks good questions. Why does a reporter choose a particular story?

The reporter’s childhood fear of trains is part of her motivation, an angle added to the Dickens story by the radio script writer. Moorehead gasps in terror at the whistle-scream and engine-roar of each one entering the nearby tunnel.

The gender change for the reporter causes the signal-man to awkwardly use “it” instead of a male pronoun to describe a figure he has seen, forshadowing what is a powerful variation on the original ending.

Irving Reese is credited with the adaptation and Elliot Lewis as producer. Joseph Kerns plays the title character. Sound effects are excellent. “Suspense” was a top-notch series.

Moorehead plays a fine reporter, insisting it will take several visits to complete her story, later providing a strong voice of reason arguing with the man about the things he has seen and heard. But this is “Suspense,” and nothing is certain but the Auto-Lite sparkplug commercials.

Wikipedia’s page about Dickens’ story reports various broadcast adaptations:

“In the United States, the story was adapted for radio for the Columbia Workshop (23 January 1937), The Weird Circle (as “The Thing in the Tunnel”, 1945), Lights Out (24 August 1946), Hall of Fantasy (10 July 1950), Suspense (4 November 1956) and Beyond Midnight (as “The Signalman”, 1970) radio shows. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation also adapted the story for their CBC Radio drama programme Nightfall (17 December 1982).”

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The reporter and “The Signalman”

Sorting out a stack of CDs of podcasts I downloaded more than a decade ago, I discovered this reporter-centric episode of “Lights Out,” a suspenseful 1940s series. 

This copy is playable or downloadable from the Old Time Radio Researchers Group’s (It opens with almost a minute of static, disk or tape noise, but gradually becomes listenable.) 

The plot: A new London Times  reporter is assigned a story on “little-known occupations” and comes upon a railroad tunnel and it’s veteran signal operator. 

“This is a world here different from other men’s worlds,” he says. And we’re off. The new reporter asks good questions, and gradually gets some very strange answers 

The story “The Signal-Man” is much older than this 1946 broadcast. The author is Charles Dickens, more famous for his novels and his  “Christmas  Carol” ghost story. Although there is no holiday theme, this one also was first published in a Christmas season magazine, in 1866, in keeping with an even older tradition of telling ghost stories at Christmas

According to Wikipedia, the Dickens story was adapted for broadcast in England, Canada and the U.S.

The American versions were by the Columbia Workshop in 1937, The Weird Circle (“The Thing in the Tunnel,” 1945), this Lights Out production, Hall of Fantasy in 1950, Suspense in 1956, and Beyond Midnight (as “The Signalman”) in 1970.

I’m off to track down recordings of the others, and the original Dickens, to see if the inquiring reporter is the storyteller in all versions, then add it to one of my overview pages.

(Note: this post is partly an experiment in creating a WordPress item from my new cell phone. I will edit it in a day or two.)

Posted in 1940s, adaptations, Drama, podcast, reporters, suspense | Leave a comment

Radio reporter killed; Hornet on the case

A Man of Many Words,” July 7, 1946

This unusual 70-year-old episode of The Green Hornet begins with a heroic  (or foolhardy?) journalist defying death threats — but he’s a radio columnist, not one of the series’ usual newspaper reporters. In the 1940s, radio news reports had grown in importance to a nation following developments in World War II, but the broadcast journalist was still not as common a character in radio dramatic series as the newspaper reporter.

The Green Hornet, a costumed-hero adventure series aimed at a teen or young-adult audience,  had plenty of journalists.  The Hornet was a young newspaper publisher, frustrated by racketeers and corrupt politicians who stayed out of the reach of the law. By pretending to be a masked criminal himself, he could bring them to justice in other ways. 

Like Superman’s Daily Planet, the Hornet’s Daily Sentinel was the perfect place to learn about the life of the city. Its reporters, photographers, editors, and the publisher’s secretary, appeared regularly in Hornet stories — for the most part unaware their boss was the man behind the mask and the Hornet’s non-lethal gas gun.

In this episode there are newsroom scenes and some banter between newspaper publisher Britt Reid and reporter Michael Axford, about radio-newspaper competition.

Axford is not the Sentinel’s sharpest reporter; he’s a former cop appointed to his position by Reid’s father, owner of the paper, to double as Reid’s bodyguard. In the Hornet stories he also doubled as comic-relief, a stereotypical ethnic caricature — the “dumb Irish flatfoot” who never figured out the Hornet’s identity. 

Of course, Reid ends up going after murderous racketeers as the Green Hornet, with the help of Kato, his valet (and brilliant inventor, and driver), and their super-fast Black Beauty getaway car.  

The criminal enterprise in question is a postwar anomaly, a black-market in meat. Was this really an issue in 1946? Or was this script originally developed when wartime rationing and shortages were common? At first I suspected the latter, but a little online research in newspaper archives and history sites shows that meat shortages were, indeed, making headlines in 1946.

Incidentally,  the “Man of Many Words” of the episode title is not the radio commentator or anyone on the Sentinel staff,  but the racket boss — a corpulent sesquipidelian with echoes of Sydney Greenstreet’s character in the 1941 movie “The Maltese Falcon.” (It may be just a coincidence,  but a similarly Greenstreet-like criminal mastermind was featured in the “Adventures of Superman” radio series story “Atom Man in Metropolis” the previous year.) 

The Internet Archive provided the MP3 file. Hornet episodes are also available on high-quality CDs from Radio Spirits.

For more about the series, see my Green Hornet page.

(Technical note: This post was begun with the Chrome browser on an Android phone, then updated with a new version of the WordPress Android app. In addition to getting a new episode onto the site before a classroom discussion next week, I was testing the coding of MP3 streaming and download links, and  determining whether repeated edits were saved properly. The App was much more reliable than the phone-browser rendition of the website editor, in both HTML and visual-editing modes.)

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Fighting slavery with a newspaper

The long-running Jewish Theological Seminary radio series “The Eternal Light” usually drew from an older text, but it did feature a crusading newspaper in at least one episode, “The Rabbi with Ink-Stained Hands,” which the inspirational-drama program broadcast more than once.

The 1960 broadcast of “The Rabbi with Ink-stained Hands”:

The broadcast dramatizes the life of Rabbi David Einhorn, an anti-slavery crusader in 1850s Baltimore before being forced to flee to Philadelphia when a mob destroyed his newspaper, Sinai.

The murder of Presbyterian minister and abolitionist publisher Elijah Lovejoy is also mentioned in the story.

The Old-Time Radio Researchers Library has versions of the program from 1956 and 1960. I am browsing the long running series (1944-1962) for other episodes featuring journalists.

So far, I haven’t found references to prominent publishers of Jewish ancestry Adolph Ochs (The New York Times) or Joseph Pulitzer (The New York World), but  the program dealt with moral ideals, not just Jewish ancestry. As for newspaper-related episodes, there is one involving the non-Jewish  Ben Franklin (played by Ralph Bellamy), waxing nostalgic about his printing appenticeship and first “Silence Dogood” columns. And there’s another ecumenical item about Gandhi, although not focused on his newspapering.

The 1956 broadcast of “The Rabbi with Ink-stained Hands”:


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Fighting drugs with a radio-comicbook crossover

Radio and movie star Frank Lovejoy would have been 104 today. Better known as the leading man reporter on Night Beat,  Lovejoy also took a turn as The Blue Beetle, a radio and comic book superhero who appeared to borrow heavily from Superman and The Green Hornet.

Unlike those two, the Beetle’s day job wasn’t at a newspaper. Instead, he was a rookie police patrolman. However, his girlfriend in the comic books was a Lois Lane style reporter, Joan Mason, who even appeared as the title character in some comic stories. And on the radio, he also shared the stage with newspaperman Charlie Stone, “ace reporter of the York City Sun,” friend of police officer Dan Garret (the Blue Beetle) and his partner.

The comic, launched in 1939, evolved into a radio serial in 1940 that ran for less than a year. Frank Lovejoy, the actor who played the Beetle, was to have more success a decade later playing a newspaper columnist in the mystery/drama series “Night Beat.”

Radio episodes of The Blue Beetle are available at, including Drug Ring (May 15, 1940), which includes reporter Charlie Stone. (Click the episode title to download or stream an MP3 if an audio player icon is not visible.) Not only does the character don his blue chain mail to fight reefer-dealers and opium dens, he begins taking a mysterious drug himself — a secret “vitamin 2X,” which gave him the ability to recover from bullet wounds and increased his strength and speed and mental abilities.

The reporter doesn’t have a big part in the episode, although he is observant enough to  get the license number of a gunman’s car. When Garret’s partner sends him to call for an ambulance for the hero, shot down on the street, he mentions that he’ll call his paper at the same time.  “Boy, what a story!” he says, on his way to the phone.

(Since my first posting of information about the Blue Beetle on my Adventure series overview page, I’ve discovered that has both an Old Time Radio Researchers Blue Beetle collection and a second BlueBeetle collection, which may overlap or vary in sound quality.)

Alas, the shows are juvenile, punctuated by organ arpeggios and overwrought dialogue, which may explain why the series had such a short run on radio, although the comic book has had several incarnations under several publishing companies over the years. Here’s an early sample Blue Beetle comic at the Internet Archive, an April 1943 World War II era episode, complete with both Irish and Asian cultural stereotypes.

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Clark Kent finds swell story via turtle

In 1940, Superman didn’t need a world-threatening super villain or a city-destroying duel with another “hero” to be an entertaining role model. In this early “Adventures of Superman” radio tale, Clark Kent’s reportorial curiosity gets the better of him — so much that he passes up a scheduled boat ride home from a previous adventure in the Caribbean.

After resolving the previous tale, the opening episode of “The Curse of Dead Man’s Island” starts with Daily Planet copyboy Jimmy Olsen catching a turtle to take home — only to discover a call for help scratched into its shell. That’s enough to inspire reporter Kent to investigate. As he says,

“There may be a swell story behind this plea for help. Someone is evidently in trouble!”

His instincts are right — the story eventually involves a mostly deserted island, a castaway, a beautiful woman, a secluded castle with a mysterious dynamo and, of course, a dungeon.

See the JHeroes overview page for the Superman radio show, which began in February, 1940, serializing its stories as 12-minute daily episodes. This particular story ran from Sept. 23 to Oct. 4, shorter than most of the adventures. The six individual episodes are downloadable from the chronological Internet Archive collection of the series, or as a combined 70-minute recording. (Unlike some full-story recordings, this one is before the repetitious Kellogg’s cereal commercials that came with the successful series’ full sponsorship later.)

There are no major explorations of journalism ethics in this juvenile adventure, although Clark does fib to the captain of their homeward-bound vessel to explain why he and Jimmy are staying in the islands, and he does show somewhat questionable judgment including Jimmy in the adventure — but having a companion to talk to makes for much better radio than relying on a narrator to fill in the gaps.

As usual for these early stories, the mystery plot is on a human scale, with Kent’s superhuman powers only coming into play when necessary — often to save Jimmy or Lois Lane (who is absent from this story), while Kent pursues a news story that turns into an adventure. Kent’s being a reporter “frames” the tale more than his being Superman. In the process he shows the usual journalistic skills with nautical charts and small engines, as well as a certain amount of luck, not all of it good.

At the end of this six-parter,  there’s no mention of the story Clark plans to file about the adventure. After the mystery is solved (no spoilers here; listen for yourself), Kent and Jimmy don’t even fly home. They head back to Metropolis by boat, where they find a message waiting from Perry White to return home because they are needed for another big story.

It’s the life of a reporter — or so young listeners were taught in 1940.

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Merry Christmas from Superman, 1945

Cover of Supermancomic39-1“Christmas today is very extra-special,” the Man of Steel announced to listeners seventy years ago, at the start of the “Adventures of Superman” episode broadcast on the first Christmas Day after the end of World War II.

With Germany and Japan defeated, the holiday message set the stage for later “Adventures of Superman” public-service messages and storylines encouraging young listeners to view hate and intolerance as their real enemy.

Actor Bud Collyer, whose own identity was a bigger secret than Clark Kent’s, stayed in character to deliver Superman’s “personal message” to listeners, opening the daily program. Superman was speaking, he said, on behalf of the Daily Planet’s Clark Kent, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen and Perry White: “Once more ‘peace on earth, good will to men’ is more than just a beautiful phrase…” (His speech filled the time slot usually allocated to a promotion for some “mail in your boxtops” Kellogg’s premium.)

“On this Christmas Day, let’s all determine to do everything we can to see that this remains  a lasting peace on earth, through the everyday practice of ‘good will to men.’ You see, wars grow out of misunderstanding, hate and intolerance, all things that were preached against by the Prince of Peace, whose nativity we celebrate today. Now, if we try to understand our fellow man, if we avoid hate and banish intolerance, we would do away with the cause for war and this scourge would forever disappear from the earth…”

“Regardless of race, creed or color, we’re all humans, entitled to the same respect and privileges. Here in America, all of us — black and white, Catholic, Protestant and Jew — are all Americans, and we must live together peaceably at home if we are to live at peace with the world.”

Unfortunately — holiday deadline pressure on the radio program’s script writer? — in another part of his speech, the refugee from Krypton managed to attribute the phrase “all men are created equal” to Abraham Lincoln, instead of the Declaration of Independence. I wonder how many young fact-checking fans of the Daily Planet journalists caught the error?

Although reporter Kent conducted a few interviews as part of the plot, there wasn’t much journalism practiced in this episode, day 16 of a 25-episode continuing story, “Searching for Kryptonite,” in which he enlisted the help of his pal Batman to track down stolen chunks of the radioactive element that could kill Superman.  In the past few months, Nazis had used kryptonite to create a powerful Atom Man who almost destroyed Superman in story lines that ran from September through November of 1945. Before the tale was over, Superman would face another echo of the war, in the form of an evil Japanese scientist.

But with the real war against Germany and Japan ended, where could radio script writers find forces of evil for Superman to fight? The opening three episodes of “Searching for Kryptonite” hinted at a possible enemy — one that would have fascinated Edward Said, author of the book “Orientalism“: One of the Nazi Atom Man’s associates left behind a coin or seal marked with a star and crescent. After discovering it, Kent and Olsen were attacked by a swarthy, sandal-wearing, knife-wielding assassin who wore the same symbol as a brand on his heel. Kent subdued him without even changing to Superman, but the “Arab” — as Jimmy identified the man to an Irish-accented policeman — killed himself while in police custody.

Did the post-war spirit of brotherhood squelch some writer’s original idea for the villains in this plot? In another episode, the Daily Planet’s expert on symbolism, Harry Goldman, gives Kent and Olsen a lecture on crescent and star symbols, finally assuring them that “there’s nothing distinctly Turkish or Moslem in the combination.” Keeping only a vague xenophobia alive, a “Hindu” boy is identified as part of the gang later, but other members have American or European names like “Sydney,” “Smith,” “Jones” and “Phillips,” although they also have connections with former Nazis and that the Japanese scientist. (The character “Sydney,” killed in an earlier story, was reminiscent of the mysterious world-traveling conspirator played by Sydney Greenstreet in the movie The Maltese Falcon.)

Ultimately, the radio serial dismisses the evil-doers as just “spies and crooks,” the “Crescent and Star mob” and “one of the worst confidence rings in the country,” with no national or religious significance in its membership symbol. And within a few months the “Adventures of Superman” radio series would be fully committed to fighting intolerance,  taking on “The Hate Mongers’ Organization” in the spring and, famously, “The Clan of the Fiery Cross” in the summer, and characterizing these domestic villains as echoes of the defeated Nazis for preaching hatred and intolerance.

If the one 15-minute episode has you curious, all 25 parts of “Looking for Kryptonite” are downloadable from page eight of the Internet Archive’s Superman collection, complete with Kellogg’s commercials and daily plot summaries. For a quick read, James Lantz’s plot summary and review are available at the Superman Homepage.

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