The Post Office, the Press & Hoppy

Plenty of communication media here, as Hopalong Cassidy and his comedy sidekick California track The Bandit of Blackton Bend … The crime is a Post Office robbery and murder, while the editor of the financially-troubled local newspaper is too ready to jump to conclusions.

Hoppy cocoa mug c.1951

This 1951 Hopalong Cassidy radio adventure reminds me of his TV series and movies, and all the Hopalong Cassidy merchandise my parents spoiled me with when I was little. Including a Hopalong Cassidy milk glass and cocoa mug that are still in the kitchen cabinet somewhere.

William Boyd, who played the sixgun hero, was a pioneer of media marketing, merchandising and personal branding, which I remember seeing written up in one of the communication research academic journals when I was in graduate school.

With its commercials already removed (or not yet inserted), this archived broadcast is only 27 minutes, with more action than character development… a saloon fight, an explosion, the robbery, a posse pursuit, and even some history along the Oklahoma-Texas border. That echoes a more famous tale of a newspaper family on the Oklahoma frontier, “Cimarron,” the Edna Ferber novel and Academy Award winning film. It was filmed a second time and even adapted for radio more than once.

Like the Oklahoma land rush editor in “Cimarron,” Hopalong Cassidy’s young editor friend Matt Hardesty is rumored to be good with a gun and his fists… But Hoppy knows the editor was injured in a fall from a horse recently and may not be up to a brawl when a local troublemaker and hired gun try to start something.

Meanwhile, editor Hardesty’s father, founder of the paper, worries that he hasn’t made life easy for his son — leaving him a struggling business by writing too many impatient editorials, trying to civilize the frontier town.

“I’ve begun to realize that reform editorials can cost a paper friends and business,” the old newsman says.

Perhaps his troubles take their toll when the discouraged man breaks confidence with the sister of a wanted man, accused of a previous postal heist. She was trying to get Hopalong to bring him in for trial safely, sure that he was innocent of the first charge. Will the newspaper and a posse put out a dead or alive search for the wrong man? Not if Hopalong Cassidy can do something about it.

This is a 1951 Saturday morning style cowboy-show adventure, not one of radio’s later adult westerns like “Gunsmoke,” but the ethical issues are pretty serious… and, as usual, the program is an example of all kinds of radio series reminding their listening audience of the existence of newspapers out there in the real world, sometimes trying to make a difference, and sometimes making mistakes.

The episode is one of more than a hundred Hopalong Cassidy tales stored at the Internet Archive by the Old Time Radio Researchers group, but so far it is the only one where I have found a newspaper editor in the plot. That was thanks to J. David Goldin’s collection of plot summaries which I quickly searched for newspaper-related keywords. I’ll listen to a few more and see if I run into any more journalists, doing their jobs but not making it into the headlines.

Posted in 1950s, 19th century, editors, ethics, newspapers, westerns | Leave a comment

Newsman as canary in a coal mine?

Portrait from Wikipedia

Edward G. Robinson


A newspaper takes on the dangers of coal mining — and the power of the local mine owner, a banker who threatens a takeover of the newspaper, in this vintage 1940 episode of Big Town, “Deep Death.” (Click the title to play or download an mp3 of the full episode.)


Two more men die in Big Town mines” is the headline editor Steve Wilson fires across the bow of local mine owner and banker Dave Campbell after a dramatic coal-car wreck in the opening scene.

While later years of the series turned Wilson into a two-fisted crime-fighter, in this episode he is brave and tough-minded about fact-based and first-hand reporting. He lectures a reporter with statistics from an industry yearbook, accusing the owner of running an unsafe mine, with a fatal  accident rate three times the national average. Before the end, he is down in the mine himself as part of a rescue team.

Wilson is played by Hollywood star Edward G. Robinson, who created the series in 1937, playing Wilson as a sensational tabloid editor who turned his scandal sheet into a “reform” newspaper, with the help of the paper’s society editor (Claire Trevor). She becomes an investigative “sob sister” in this episode, getting stories about life in the tumble-down shacks of an impoverished “company-town.” Soon, she is interviewing  miners’ wives while their husbands are trapped below after another explosion and cave-in.

The dialogue is rapid, getting a lot of story into its half hour. The third-generation mine owner is still running the “company town” and mine his grandfater’s way; his mining-engineer son has new ideas.

The radio script pulls its punch a bit with disclaimers about “the vast majority” of modern mines being safe… but on the way to the conclusion we get some gritty reporting.  The company police smash a news photographer’s camera, then there’s the economic attack on the newspaper, and eventually we hear the voices of wailing wives above and trapped miners crying and praying below.

Editor Wilson volunteers to join the young mining engineer’s rescue crew. Not a miner, his job includes carrying the small creatures that will detect gas in the tunnel. (That “canary in a coal mine” role actually falls to some white mice.)

Few of Robinson’s Big Town episodes are “in circulation” as online mp3s, but most include some real newspaper-work scenes and ethical decision-making, like this one from the Old Time Radio Researchers Group library. In “Deep Death” we even get some dialogue about a story being worth “only two sticks,” jargon that dates back to the days of hand-set type, a paragraph or two at a time.

Robinson starred for five years, leaving the series during World War II. Later, the revised series became a long-running hit, taking more of a crime-fighting turn, with the editor using his wits and fists more than his typewriter and pen. Movies and a comic book followed, running into the 1950s.

“Big Town” also acquired a stirring newspaper-hero invocation at the beginning of each program,
“The power and the freedom of the press is a flaming sword; that it may be a faithful servant of all the people, use it justly. Hold it high. Guard it well!” — Edward J. Pawley as “Steve Wilson, fighting managing editor” of the Big Town Illustrated Press.

For more about the series, see my Big Town overview page, written a few years ago and still subject to change as a continual “work in progress,” unlike the daily miracle of a printed newspaper.

Posted in 1940s, closing, Drama, editors, newspaper crusades, newspapers | Leave a comment

Maybe the stories were true


Guest Wife” was a 1945 film and corresponding Lux Radio Theater production, with foreign correspondent Don Ameche returning from India to collect something like a Pulitzer Prize.Movie Poster
Unfortunately, as ethical as his reporting from India may have been, he has woven a web of deceit with his boss by creating a fictional wife in a series of not-for-publication letters, some of them praising the reporter to high heaven. To survive the New York visit with his boss, he enlists best friend Dick Foran’s wife — whose picture he had sent to the boss.

Ameche and Foran recreated their movie roles on the radio, while Olivia de Havilland got the title role that had been filled by Claudette Colbert in the movie.

Not much about journalism ethics here, although there’s quite a bit about the journalist as ethical risk-taker on a personal level, and about the hazards of marrying one of those guys.

The funny part: I discovered this film and radio adaptation while searching J. David Goldin’s archives of oldtime radio cast information for another Dick Foran performance. He was the newspaper editor in “My Little Chickadee” with W.C. Fields and Mae West — but so far I’ve found no evidence of it being adapted for radio. But “Guest Wife” brought my list of radio adaptations of films with “newspaper” characters up to 62.

Posted in 1940s, adaptations, ethics, foreign correspondents, reporters | Leave a comment

Hollywood royalty meets a journalism Royall

The folks at DuPont’s Cavalcade of America made three attempts at telling the story of 19th century journalist Anne Royall, but the first one, in 1940, was something special.

That’s despite her introduction as a “little old woman who lived in Andrew Jackson’s day,” before it gets her fights for freespeech and against corruption.

The radioplay was based on research by former newspaperwoman Bessie Rowland James, whose career included helping her husband Marquis James win two Pulitzers for historical biographies (of Andrew Jackson and Sam Houston), and writing other books with him and on her own. In fact, her research on Anne Royall continued for 32 years after this broadcast!

The full-length biography, Anne Royall’s U.S.A. was her fifth book under her own name, finally published in 1972, two years before the author’s death. John Driscoll, Edward Longstreth and Kenneth Webb are all credited with the adaptation for the 1940 radio play, rushed into live performance a week early, according to Martin Grams Jr.’s The History of the Cavalcade of America.

Two later Cavalcade radio plays about Anne Royal used a new script by Robert L. Richards, and did a better job of showing her at work as a reporter, interviewing President Jackson, and standing off a mob that wanted to wreck her press. Those 1942 and 1944 productions also had excellent casts, but no one named Ethel Barrymore, who delivers fine pleas for freedom of speech against a trumped up trial as a “public scold.”

For younger readers, here is what Wikipedia says about the actress:

Barrymore was a stage, screen and radio actress whose career spanned six decades, and was regarded as “The First Lady of the American Theatre”.

The 1940 “Anne Royall” with Barrymore presented a strong portrayal of Royall as a strong-willed and articulate critic, but was a bit vague about the issues of the day.

For more detail, and to find out whether the later script took liberties with history to make a better radio story, I’ve tracked down a copy of Bessie Rowland James 1972 book Anne Royall’s U.S.A. was finally published by Rutgers University Press. I don’t plan to take as long reading it as she took writing it. (For one thing, I’m curious whether Anne Royall was as big a fan of Andrew Jackson as that second script makes out.)

Coincidentally, a dozen years after the Cavalcade Royall broadcast, Ethel Barrymore made a memorable appearance in one of the classic newspaper movies.

She was the widow of a newspaper publisher in Deadline USA, with Humphrey Bogart as the editor fighting to save the paper from the widow’s daughters’ plans to sell it to a less principled company. (Neither Bogart nor Barrymore were in a still strong 1953 radio production of the movie story.)

More about the radio history series at my Cavalcade of America page, as well as more about the other two versions of the historic journalist’s life on my Anne Royal overview page, which is due for an update.

Posted in 19th century, cavalcade, historical figures, media history, newspaper crusades, political corruption, women | Leave a comment

Newspapers, charity and a nose for news

Wealthy owners have long been part of American newspapers, for better or for worse. This Green Hornet episode, Dead Man’s Topcoat, opens with a visitor asking newspaper publisher Britt Reid to write a check for $1,000 because a local charity has been robbed just before a big annual event for the city’s poorest families. Of course solving the crime and recovering the charity funds becomes a job for Reid’s masked secret identity, The Green Hornet.

(Yes, I’m a little late writing about a Christmas-themed episode in March.)

The 1947 story takes place after Reid, the Hornet, made his identity known to Police Commissioner Higgins, and after Reid’s secretary Miss Case had become increasingly interested in reporting… although she was not yet part of the Hornet secret-identity conspiracy.

The combination puts Case in jeopardy, Lois Lane style, when Higgins leaves a message for Reid that is actually a tip for the Hornet — which Case takes as her chance to get a big interview. On the way, she does show some aggressive reporting instincts and catches the scent of a story — literally. Unfortunately the person she is interviewing is pretty aggressive too, and has a gun…

And for once the masked Hornet isn’t the one who arrives in the nick of time! I will leave that as a surprise.

This episode is part of the Old Time Radio Researchers Library mp3 collection as well as a CD-quality Green Hornet collection available from Radio Spirits, complete with liner notes.

See the JHeroes Green Hornet page for background and discussions of episodes from the earlier years, when the police as well as the underworld thought the Hornet was some sort of masked gangster himself. As early as 1938, the patient Miss Case had an urge to join the reporting staff, as mentioned on that page.

(Unfortunately the episode download and audio player links on that page may need to be updated after several years of shifting files and file names at the Internet Archive and radio collector websites.)

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Even 1950s cowboys-for-kids followed newspapers

Wild Bill and Jingles as an OTRR CD label

Old Time Radio Researchers CD label

Wild Bill Hickok, the fictional version, sold plenty of breakfast cereal (“flaked, popped, shredded, ready-sweetened, every one’s a favorite…”) to 1950s kids on television and radio at the same time, with Guy Madison and Andy Devine as Bill and his sidekick Jingles, but even they had a few run-ins with working journalists.

A while ago I summarized an episode about a woman editor, “Press for Justice.” This time we have a macho Chicago reporter, Pug Donovan, an old hunting pal of Wild Bill’s who thinks nothing of playing a quickdraw game in which they shoot off each other’s hats. This is not taught at journalism schools.

But even the West’s badmen apparently were newspaper fans.  In this episode, a desperado called “The Rock” kidnaps Donovan so that he will write about his exploits. (The story begins, “For one night of terror, I rode with a scourge of the West…”)

The villain also threatens the local newspaper editor to get him to print the story, but the editor agrees to cooperate with Marshal Wild Bill Hickok and …

OK, so the story is as light as a bowl of Rice Krispies, without as much snap, crackle and pop. But it does make it clear that even while TV was encroaching on the radio advertising market, a children’s dramatic series in both of those “new media” was reminding young listeners of the importance of newspapers — and making a newspaper career sound as exciting as the Wild West. (Spoiler alert: Donovan does meet his deadline.)

If you want to explore a few more episodes, see the rest of the Old Time Radio Researchers collection of Wild Bill Hickok at the Internet Archive. Wild Bill didn’t limit himself to newspapers, there’s another episode where he fights some outlaws who want to interfere with that new-fangled telegraph.

For a slightly more “adult western” approach to Wild Bill Hickok, see the 1958 radio series “Frontier Gentleman,” tales of a fictional London Times reporter exploring the American West, including close encounters with historical figures.

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Reporters as ‘practically policemen’

This “Twenty-minute Alibi” episode from “Crime Photographer,” February 1947, almost makes me wonder whether the script was originally an idea for “Your Truly, Johnny Dollar,” the hit series about an insurance investigator. I even checked Radio GoldinDex’s credit list for author Robert Sloane, but Johnny Dollar wasn’t there. However Sloane was also listed as narrator for several episodes of “The Big Story,” a true-story journalism series, including a murder case from The Hartford Courant, where I was a reporter once! Those newspaper-dramas do breed a lot of coincidences.

In any case, the always-suspicious Casey and reporter Ann Williams do a fine job of figuring out the insurance-related mystery, looking for a murder in a suspected suicide. The reporter and photographer even being allowed at the scene of the crime are quite a contrast with 21st century police-media relations. We get some solid 1940s pay-phone culture, when there were live operators on the line. And Casey gives a hint of an alleged old newspaper-photographer technique — bribing someone with the promise, “Look, if you do this little job for us, you’ll get your picture in the paper!” (“See, he’s got a camera and everything,” Annie adds.) This episode also has a good plug for the regular piano player, Herman Chitterson, who played himself at the fictional Blue Note lounge.

We also get a “door knock after a death” classic reporting scene, in which the father-in-law of the deceased mentions that Casey and Ann aren’t the first journalists to visit. But the widow is quite willing to talk. And her father is quite willing to speak ill of the dead. Reporter Ann also seems to take a bigger part in the sleuthing, telling a doorman, “But we’re practically policemen. Show him your press badge, Casey.” And then doing some quick mental arithmetic to figure out the whereabouts of a suspect, and joining Casey in tailing a suspect by car and on foot.

For more about the episode, see Casey chronicler Joe Webb’s “Blue Note Bulletin” blog for “The Twenty-Minute Alibi.”

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Cagney, Dickens and ketchup save a newspaper

Johnny Come Lately movie posterLocal newspapers have been fighting for survival since the horse-and-buggy days when this story takes place.
The 1943 film Johnny Come Lately starred James Cagney as an  out-of-work “tramp reporter” who both rescues and is rescued by an elderly newspaper owner. He faces a vagrancy arrest when they meet, but she likes the fact that he is reading The Pickwick Papers and laughing out loud. She had met Dickens, you see.
When Screen Guild Theater brought the story to radio in 1948, Agnes Moorehead made a spirited editor & publisher of the Plattsville Shield and Banner, more than holding her own as Cagney’s co-star. (Vinnie McCloud or “Mrs. Mac” had been played in the movie by Grace George.)
The announcer doesn’t identify the other players, including the villainous competing publisher, a bigshot state political boss, and Gashouse Mary, an important news source in the film. A bottle of ketchup also plays a major role. And the “experience is the best teacher” life of a wandering newspaperman is even used as a metaphor by the show’s sponsor.
There’s just enough story here for the half-hour radio format. Bosley Crowther at The New York Times didn’t think Cagney was well-served by the movie script writer and director, although Variety liked the original film:

James Cagney’s first independent production via brother Bill Cagney’s unit, comes through with a topnotch performance in the story of the crack tramp newspaperman, afflicted with a wanderlust complex, who temporarily halts in his tracks to help an old lady continue publication of her newspaper and battle the crooked politico-financial forces in her town.

In the end, the tramp reporter is headed back to the road, but he gets in a good last line, when the editor says she won’t try to keep him around because she knows he likes his freedom, and knows he has more Dickens reading to catch up on.
Johnny:

“Yea, I like my freedom, but I also like your freedom and the freedom of all those decent honest citizens out there. That’s what all this fuss has been about. I won’t forget that, Mrs. Mac.”

Mrs. Mac wasn’t Ms. Moorehead’s first entry in the newspaper game on radio. She had already played star reporter Nellie Bly on Cavalcade of America and, coincidentally, would later be the reporter in a Dickens story, “The Signal Man” on an episode of “Suspense.” Pioneer oldtime radio collector J. David Goldin’s logs also list Moorehead as co-star in an optimistic CBS program about atomic power, but I haven’t been able to find an online recording. His summary says it’s “The Sunny Side Of The Atom. June 30, 1947… A dramatization of a woman reporter’s investigation into the peaceful atom. How doctors use a radioactive tracer, a radioactive medical lab, using isotopes to find oil, and a radioactive farm.” The only other cast member Goldin mentions is Al Hodge, better known to radio listeners as newspaper publisher Britt Reid, whose secret identity was The Green Hornet, and known to early television viewers as Captain Video.

The playable and downloadable MP3 versions of the story above are from the Internet Archive collection of 348 Screen Guild radio adaptations.

Posted in 1900s, 1940s, adaptations, closing, editors, local news, newspaper crusades, newspapers, political corruption, reporters | Leave a comment

From fashion column to war reporting with Gusto

Yankee Flyer Cheats Death headline

As the movie’s reporter, Colbert made headlines.

The 1940 film Arise My Love was set at the start of World War II, with a woman reporter rescuing an American flier from a firing squad as the Spanish Civil War ended, just before the larger war began. The title is from a Song of Solomon prayer the fighter pilot recites on take-off.

Radio adapted the romantic-adventure film story twice, but apparently could not enlist star Claudette Colbert to play her enterprising reporter role again, just her co-star Ray Milland as the pilot who has been fighting Spanish fascists and wants to get a shot at Germany next. Lux Radio Theater paired Loretta Young with Milland in its June 1942 version above. It was one of the first movie-adaptations actually broadcast to American forces overseas, as noted by producer Cecil B. DeMille at the start of the program.

In the opening scene, Young’s reporter Augusta Nash, nicknamed “Gusto,” has an ulterior motive for her daring exploit, posing as the wife of the American flier to secure his pardon from the Spanish authorities. In addition to his escape, she plans to make an escape of her own — to prove herself as a reporter, escape her fashion column in Paris, and do serious journalism covering what looks like an approaching European war.

That approach turns out to be remarkably fast. Her first assignment will be Berlin, and she’s quickly reading Mein Kampf on the train! Meanwhile, the pilot has volunteered for the Polish Air Force and is on the same train. Will they get to their destinations before Hitler invades Poland?

What a time to start an “Arise my love and come away with me” romance! Falling in love almost convinces them to abandon their professional and patriotic adventures and head for home. But they’re back in Paris when the Germans march into the city, and there are a couple of plot twists before the rousing “It’s not over!” patriotic message from the flier and the correspondent at the end… and another from the cast and producer in their curtain-call interview with DeMille.

Young: “Playing a war correspondent was certainly a novelty.”
Milland: “War reporting is one of the last male strongholds, C.B.; what would Richard Harding Davis and Floyd Gibbons have thought of it?”
DeMille: “Well I knew both of them, and they’d probably ask whether the lady in question was a good reporter.”

“Well, there’s some very good reporting being done by women in this war,” Young replies, and offers a list starting with Claire Booth writing from China, Burma and India in Life magazine, while Milland comments that while reporters are telling the stories of American war heroes, their own heroism may not be recognized until later. And DeMille mentions that radio as well as the press already had its reporter-heroes in this war.

In fact, the “Arise My Love” mixture of romantic-comedy and patriotic war movie got mixed reviews as a film, but won an Academy Award for its original story, and judging by the laughter and applause, the live Lux Radio audience apparently enjoyed it.

Four years later, with the war over, Academy Award Theater gave Milland star billing when it presented “Arise My Love” again, but did not even name his co-star in its compressed half-hour adaptation. In addition to the film story winning its 1941 Oscar, Milland had more recently won the 1945 Oscar for best actor in “The Lost Weekend.” Reprising his role in “Arise My Love” one more time with its truncated script might have felt a bit like a war hangover. But, here it is, thanks to the Old Time Radio Researchers collection of “Academy Award” recordings.

For more about the movie, including the censorship considerations because the U.S. had not yet entered the war, the Turner Classic Movies background essay is fascinating.

Posted in 1940s, movies, reporters, romance, women, World War II | Leave a comment

Another John Reed

The “Illyria Box Lunch” episode of “Rogers of the Gazette” is quite a package… Small-town journalism, small-town romance, mysterious thefts, a writing lecture, and a pickled peach… and all in a half hour!

Newspaper editor Will Rogers Jr has a run-in with the older gentleman who sleeps in the corner of the pressroom and prints his weekly newspaper. This time he doesn’t like Will’s editorial.

“Every so often I think you’re going to make the grade and then you turn around and write a watered down pussyfooting thing like that…”

The old printer’s name is John Reed or Reid (I’ll look that up), and he has some of the fire of another newspaperman by that name, the one who went off and wrote about the Russian Revolution.

I think I’m going to go back through episodes of “Rogers of The Gazette” and see if I can piece together more of the story of Mr. Rogers’ cantankerous friend and, it seems, mentor.

Posted in 1950s, editors, local news, newspapers | Leave a comment